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Frank C. Higgins, F. R. N. S. 

Author of Copper Coins of Modern Europe. 
The Chinese Numismatic Riddle, Etc., Etc 





it is in or through symbols that man. consciously or unconsciously, 

lives. works and has his being. 

Highest of all symbols are those wherein the Artist or poet has risen 

into Prophet and all men can recognize a present God and worship 

the same. 

Carlisle— Sartoi Resartiu. 





Copyright 1912, by the Author. 

All rights reserved. 


The "Cross of the Magi" is cordially and gratefully dedicated 
to my esteemed colleagues of the Xew York Numismatic Club, 
through whose appreciative moral support I have been encour- 
aged to persist in a line of research which throws, I am quite 
sure, an altogether new light on many obscure numismatic prob- 

I also wish to acknowledge the generous and sympathetic co- 
operation of Brother Franklin B. Huntington, 32" and Knight 
Templar, and of Edward T. Newell, Esq., in my efforts to place 
the fruits of my researches, in fitting dress, before the public. 





To those who are moved to regard the materials of which 
this little book has been constructed rather commonplace when 
compared with the importance attributed to them, let us say 
that the greatest mystery of life lies in the manner with which 
it envelops, surrounds and permeates us with its unceasing mir- 
acles without so much as attracting attention unless we are in 
the mood to philosophize. 

The ancient world, in seeking the ultimate cause of being, 
sought neither riddles nor enigmas, but the truth. 

It realized that the "infinite", as an abstract proposition, 
must embrace both the great and the small within one all suf- 
ficing law. The macrocosmos was shown mathematically to be 
reflected in the microcosmos as the yellow orange is the humble 
image of earth or sun and so mankind felt the divine impulsion 
to "seek and find". 

The philosophies of number and proportion are those which 
lie the closest to human perception through the medium of the 

They constitute, at least, the gateways of reason and we 
hope to retrace in a sense the footsteps of humanity which have 
followed the path from darkness to light impelled by the greatest 
of God's gifts, the desire of wisdom, and lighted by the glory of 
His universe, the manifest correlation and vivid symbolism of 
every atom of ( Yeation. 

It is neither our imagination or invention that these funda- 
mental truths were perceived, grasped and their lessons applied 
by races long vanished. 

They foresaw, as we foresee in turn, that a time comes when 
all which remains of the thought and sentiment of a generation 
is that which it is able to indite, paint or engrave upon material 
ca pa hie <»f withstanding the ravages of time far beyond the du- 
ration of individual human existence. 

Evading with infinite tact and patience, premature revela- 
tion to the profane of their own and .later days on the one hand 
and on the other, the danger that symbolic interpretation of the 
divine premeditation revealed in nature might be lost in its very 
trueness to the original pattern and thus pass for mere artistic 
imitation without its metaphysical intention being perceived, 
the ancient world contrived the graphic symbol. 

Our sole preoccupation is to confront the symbolisms of the 
pasl with the material facts in which they had their rise and 
their manifold expressions in every time and clime prior to our 
own materialistic age in order that they may be permitted once 
more to teach their own lessons in the manner intended by their 


X.'w York, dime loth, 1912. 


To whatsoever ancient system of philosophy we turn, irre- 
spective of its age or the geographical boundaries of its influence, 
we find such of its axioms and elucidations as have been pre- 
served to us, accompanied by the tradition of a lost arcana, or 
inner secret, for which so much potency is claimed, that its 
transmission is generally ascribed to the simple credulity of 
past ages and its existence dismissed as a meaningless myth. 

The serious student of the lore of by-gone ages is not, how- 
ever, so sure that the repeated indications which he discovers 
on every side, of at least the assumption of hidden knowledge, 
is not based upon a foundation of fact. 

The delver into archaeology, is confronted with strange 
symbolisms, which, while there is always some one to hazard a 
guess at their meaning, leave him utterly bewildered. 

The scholar, saturated with Oriental classics, the Hellenic 
philosophies and the mysteries of the ancient religious arts, is 
convinced of their interest, but left as unsatisfied upon the 
threshold of the inner shrine, as though his knowledge mocked 
him. Modern mystics amuse themselves and each other, with 
fragments of age-old wisdom, which have reached us, each in- 
terpreting, after a fashion of his own, the odds and ends of folk- 
lore, which pass for authentic history. 

For these reasons, a recapitulation of all which speculative 
writers have penned upon the subject, would be pure loss of time 
in the present connection although they will always retain the 
highest interest for the student. 

A stupendous tissue of guess-work, is laden upon the book- 
shelves of the world. 

The sacred Yih King of the Chinese, is an almost meaning- 
less jargon, because of the loss of a mysterious "Tablet of Des- 
tiny", which is the key to its inner meanings; but which no 
human eye, within the memory of history, has seen. 

The " Divine Tablet", which the Sumerian monarch, Emme- 
dmanki, "received from the hands of the Babylonian trinity, 
Ann, Bel and Ilea", is but an historical hint, like the "Tables of 
Judgement", of the latter people and the Urim and Thummim, 
of the Jew. 

Sabaism, the ancient religious cult, which gave rise to both 
scientific astronomy and the reputed sister science of astrology, 
is only recollected by history as a vulgar "Star Worship". 
Magianism, which led the shepherd three to the feet of the Babe 
of Bethlehem, has no Letter explanation. For high upon two 
thousand years, the final word of human salvation has been 
claimed to he settled tor all time upon the tradition that these 
people performed certain extraordinary actions, because they 
were convinced that "a King was born unto the Jews, for they 
had seen HIS Star in the East." 

Yet not one step has been made by historians, in the direc- 
tion of accurate knowledge of events, which are deemed true 
enough to base the whole Christian theory of human relation to 
the Creator of the Universe upon them. 

The answer of the believer, that the statements of Holy Writ 
do not require confirmation, is the fountain head of Atheism; 
while the denial of the Atheist, is as unsatisfying to himself, as 
to the most devout Churchman. 

The legendary traditions, the authentic historical records, 
the tangible, visible; monuments and archaeological remains of 
all peoples, of all times and places, are there to attest the one 
time comprehension of something, which was in itself a conceal- 
ment from the vulgar eye, of a secret, the possession of which 
perished at a distant date. 

Modern science has, however, been long keenly upon the 
scent y)\' the truth and when that truth is fully realized, the world 
will look with amazement upon the innumerable near approach- 
es which have been made to a solution of the greatest o^ all the 
mundane mystei tes. 

The approaches in question, have mainly consisted of the 
great masses of evidence, built up by students of comparative 
religion, archaeology, anthropology and ethnology, that the en- 
tire human race Ls bound together by a common heritage of tra- 
dition and symbolism, weak hut manifest among savage races, 
Strong and abounding in circumstances, wherever the hand of 
civilized man has stamped his seal. 

Specialization, while it has endowed the world with mas- 
ter piece- of successful research, has, however, retarded the re- 
discovery o\' the greatest of the mysteries, because the latter, 
the product of a period when the now scattered elements of hu- 
manity must have been knit closer together, has also had its 
primitive elements so dispersed, that no modern scholar of the 

specializing school, has broadened his range of vision, so as to 
embrace them all and, recognizing the analogies, bring them 

The success of the writer in this direction, should have been 
that of an infinitely more learned scholar, but the generalization, 
which the latter might have disdained, has been essential to 

A little knowledge of the whole world, has done more to 
produce the particular result, than the most profound special 
acquaintance of one, or even two, or three, ancient civilizations, 
would have aided to accomplish. 

The labor of unravelling the great puzzle of antiquity, has 
occupied a quarter of a century, in the acquirement of the neces- 
sary appreciation, through Numismatic study and world travel 
and over a year of special research, verification and meditation, 
after the first conception had taken root. 

The acquirement of the central arcanum, simple as it may 
appear, in its perfected condition, required the combination and 
systematic grouping of ideas, derived from, First: Pythagorean 
arithmetical philosophy; Kecond: European astronomy; Third: 
ancient Mexican mythology; Fourth: Chinese cosmogony. 

With all this seeming complication and impossibility of 
securing a result, until these widely diversified fields of research 
had been reviewed in turn, without at first, the slightest idea of 
what would result therefrom, the completed fabric takes shape 
and substance, with the simplicity and beauty of God's nature,, 
of which it is the eternal type. 

We are compelled to accept the testimony of the ancient 
symbolisms to two very important theses, especially where they 
attest origin from geometrical formulae, the comprehension, let 
alone development of which, is out of range of the ordinary, nor- 
mal mind concerned with the materialities of every day life. 

Oik; is that such manifest subtleties of calculation could not 
have been the work of other than men of great mental capacity 
and highly developed reasoning powers, living at periods immeas- 
urably remote from those in which we begin to find historical 
traces of recognized schools of philosophy or of individual Phil- 

The other is that the geometrical figures selected by the 
hierarchies of ancient religions to graphically portray concep- 
tions of spiritual truths bear witness to the fact that those whoi 
first put, them into circulation were profound thinkers along 

theosophical lines which, having never lost their interest or 
meaning to humanity, arc still the basis of all the world can 
glean of the supernatural. 

This being established compels us to recognize the exist- 
ence, at time- tart her hack than those of which history can give 
us any account, of a humanity no less mentally keen than that 
with which we are contemporary and to look for the origines of 
symbolism in something else than the fetichism of the savage or 
the superstitions oi the uncultured and barbarous. 

We find, lor instance, the Swastika still employed a- an 
amulet by the red Indians of the American plains and the home- 
less nomads of northern Asia after having passed in review 
much evidence of its veneration by all the peoples of antiquity. 
So long as the nature of symbols was but imperfectly known we 
have been entirely justified in assuming' that it was merely an 
attractive arbitrary figure to which any age or race might attrib- 
ute its own significance, but the moment we are confronted with 
scientific evidence that it is the correct geometrical solution to 
an intricate problem of Eternal Wisdom, we are compelled to 
recognize the mental parity of its originators with ourselves. 


''Behind all the religions of the world", wrote Ignatius 
Donnelly, "lies a great Solar Myth." 

The great Solar Myth, need be a "myth" no longer, for it 
only became such, through the loss to the world of one of the 
most beautiful, inspiring and intellectual contemplations, which 
human thought has ever grasped. 

Prepared to prove it, let us say at once that the great Solar 
Myth, man's earliest expansion of heart and soul, lifted in grate- 
ful exaltation to his maker, has from its earliest and most prim- 
itive conception, persisted, evolved, developed and manifested 
down to our own age and day. When we thoroughly understand 
what it is and of what it consists, we shall be astounded to realize 
the treasure of purposeful meaning, which has been lying within 
it, behind the veil of man's mis-conception and mis-understand- 
ing, these ages past. The well-spring and fountain of every 
system of religion the world has ever known, from the most 
primitive cull of barbarism to the most cultured Christianity, 
the Solar Myth has passed through every philosophical trans- 
formation, which the human mind has been capable of giving it, 
yd it remains, in its essence, essentially the same as in the be- 
ginning, which was not in the ignorance of the savage, but in the 
intellectual power to grasp eternal truth, of the fully developed, 
highly illuminated mind and that at a period so remote, that he 
may only approximately realize it, who is able to conceive of a 
time, when the scattered family of earth, were as closely allied 
in thought, as at the present day, even if in order to seize upon 
the idea, we must credit the notion of a one time great disper- 
sion, from some central home of humanity. 

Granted the wonderful phenomena of physical nature and 
the splendour of the celestial panorama, the Solar Myth— a 
"myth" only to those who have lost all of its original sense— 
was lar more than a blind adoration of the Solar disc— in the 
sense of a huge, glittering, barbarian fetish, miraculously poised 
in n marvellous firmament. 

The primitive races of mankind, viewed the orb of day, 
under aspects which have been completely lost sight of for cen- 



turies; I n 1 1 which, nevertheless, may well surprise us by tire pro- 
fluidity of their "wisdom and the divinity of their purpose, when 
we realize thai sueli contemplation was the parent of our every 
art, science, philosophical speculation and religious conception 
of to day. 

The so-called "Solar Myth", took cognisance, not only of 
the "King of Day", but of the "Queen of Night" and her sid- 
erial retinue- terms far older than most of us suspect. 

We can well conceive of a time, when both the Sun and the 
Moon, may have been blindly worshipped by the unenlightened, 
but, in the rapt confidence of humanity in their ever visible 
divine ruler and his consort, the phenomena to which their ap- 
preciable natures and movements gave rise, were duly compared 
with what could be gathered from terrestrial experiences, and 
that with mo.-t astonishing results. 

Ancient Babylonians engaged in ceremonies relating- to the Magian 
worship of tlic heavenly bodies. The Cross is a geometrical Messianic 
Symbol and the crossed hands of the assemblage are in token of adora- 
tios of the Sun, Moon and Zodiac. — (From contemporary sculptures;) 

The precise individual applications of the great Solar Myth. 
by the ancients, are, of course, matters of great detail, but when 
the theories upon which they labored are correctly comprehend- 
ed, the mass of controversial mis-understandings between both 
historians and theologians, which is cleared away, is beyond 
simultaneous grasp. 

'The system should rather, perhaps, be termed Soli-Lunar, 
for it will be found, as we proceed, that the dwellers of the an- 


cient world regarded the Moon as far more intimately associated 
■with the earth than the Sim, in connection with- certain phases 
of their philosophy of creation. 

The Sim, they certainly viewed as father and visible pres- 
ence of the supreme creator, fructifier of earth, regulator of the 
Seasons and diurnal time; but they also recognized in the Sun, 
a masculine independance and periodical wandering, from the 
immediate vicinity of earth, while, on the contrary, the Moon 
supplied more the attributes of motherhood, hovering ever near, 
tending and watching over the slumbers of her progentiure, 
while dividing into smaller and more comprehensive periods, 
the larger measures of time, defined by the Solar orb. The ap- 
parent regulation by the Moon, of many of the most important 
minutiae of the maternal functions — matters which have been 
taken ample note of by scientists and need not be here enlarged 
upon, decided the primitive view of the intimate relations be-* 
tween Sun and Moon; leaving it to the wisdom and application 
of those duly set apart for such purposes, to examine and define 
the relation of all things terrestrial, to the cosmic parents of the 
Universe and their recognized progeny, the planets of our own 
system, which were with unerring accuracy singled out from 
among the heavenly host. All of this is, of course, skimming 
rapidly over a most fascinating story, which has been told and 
re-told, and which may be luxuriated in, in detail, in many ab- 
sorbing volumes; but it is necessary to re-capitulate it, in a 
measure, » establish our own connection. 

It is to the immensely ancient Solar priesthood, known to 
ages much nearer our own times than those of their origin, as 
the Magi, that we must ascribe the discovery and embodiment of 
natural principles, in myth, dogma, prophecy and symbol. All 
speculations as to the precedence of one ancient religious system 
over another, fall behind the clearly demonstrable, self-evident 
precedence of the great Soli-Lunar cults over all. It will be uni- 
versally recognized, sooner or later, that the tide of evidence can 
be neither dammed, nor "damned" back; that all of our most 
modem dogmatic conceptions, are but extensions and amplifica- 
tion- thereof— Christian and Turk, Jew and Polynesian, Mongol, 
Redskin and Teuton, all drawing their "water of life", from the 
same spiritual source. 

There is really nothing shocking in this, to the devout mind, 
from whatsoever point of view. It is certainly a jar, as the 
<udden awakening from a slumber of ages, must inevitably be; 


but it is surely something to humanity, to feel the certitude 
that the many discords, in the world of spiritual contemplation, 
arc hut due to mis-conceptions and time altered versions of a 
great cosmic drama, in which the structure of the visible finite, 
world, is made manifest, as the image and symbol of the invisi- 
ble and infinite. 

[s it, indeed, disquieting that the mystic tragedy of Calvary. 
is written large by the hand of the Eternal, in the intimate struc- 
ture of every rock and stone, every leaf and flower, each warm- 
ing sunbeam and each cooling flake of snow? 

We shall never grasp the true spirit of ancient prophecy, 
until we are brought face to face with what the utterers thereof. 
custodians of the ancient wisdom, had in their hearts and souls, 
when they spake the burning phrases, which pointed unerring 
fingers at the manifestation of a Saviour of mankind. 

The fires of fanaticism, effectually exterminated all pos- 
sessors of the Magian lore, although there are many evidences 
of its retention, down to a late period of the Middle Ages. Even 
then, it is perhaps doubtful, whether or not, the main key re- 
mained in existence. The lack of certainty as to the puzzling 
analogies with which comparative religion is fraught and the 
absolute impotence of any human agency, to satisfactorily ex- 
plain the consistency of early prophecies with later events, called 
for a stringenl muzzling of all curious enquiry which the self 
proclaimed custodians of all Divine wisdom were unable to sat- 

We shall see that these ancient philosophers were right 
about some things. 


It is Pythagoras who has come the nearest to putting us 
upon the track of almost all herein contained, for he has left us 
the most transcendant and illuminating proof that he knew, al- 
though silent, m the famous figure, known as the Forty-seventh 
problem of Euclid. In so great an extent indeed does the Divine 
truth (We prefer that term, even to "science") of Geometry 
enter into the matter that we are inclined to refer to the world's 
earliest conception of divine power and wisdom, as that derived 
irom boli-Lunar Geometry. 

The Forty Seventh Problem of Euclid, acquired by 
Pythagoras of Crotona from Hur-Amen, a Priest of 
the Sun at Heliopolis, Wgypt and while ostensibly set- 
ting forth a simple geometrical truth, in reality con- 
cealing- the mystery of the Universe. 

We may tabulate the earliest intellectual efforts of dawning 
civilization to have embraced conception of those abstract no- 
tions, which were most intimately related to the conditions of 



the creature, as indeed they did, for we find no race, ancient or 
modern, without some definite notion of the rotation of the seas- 
on- and the cardinal points of the compass. Association of both 
of these idea- with the Sun and later with the rest of the celestial 
firmament, is simple enough. 

Did not the Sun-god in his majesty govern both of the seas- 
ons hy his relative proximity and the sense of direction by his 
unerring course : 

When man, emerging from barbarism, learned to express 
the latter graphically, by a single line, drawn in the direction of 
the course of the Snn. he had still to express the directions be- 
fore and behind him and so by a stroke of some barbarian linger 
in the sand, long ago, the "Sign of the Cross" was transmitted 

•ss of tl<- Cardinal points. .Man's first step in human culture. 

from the unfathomable mind of the Eternal, to the enquiring 
spirit of man. The association of the extremities of this figure 
with the number "four" was inevitable and it soon became ap- 
parent that the simple cross, surrounded by a boundary of four 
line-, like those of which it was composed, might be made to rep- 
ent many things, by way of illustration. 




The arms of the cross still 
continued to represent North, South, 
East and West; while the four ensu- 
ing smaller squares might represent 
the four phases of Solar influence, oc- 
curring between the periods of great- 
east heat. It might also have been observed 
square was thus divided by a cross, that a 


est intensity and 

that every time a square was tuns divided by a 
division into three additional parts was effected and that, 
scales of accurate multiplication and division were established. 
Eventually the crossed squares would be still further rendered 
practical, by intersection, from corner to corner, establishing 
the four intermediate points of the 
compass, when the resulting figure 
would and did present a rude hier- 
oglyph of the Sun. Furthermore, 
the regular proportions and consec- 
utive multiplications, would have 
attracted attention and been endow- 
ed with a sacred significance — which is indeed precisely what 
occurred, for we find ^^ Ilu, the character expressing 

the name of God, still *^J[/ surviving in the cuneiform of 
the Babylonian in ^\|K scribed bricks, seals and cyl- 
inders, ^r |V 

As to the arith- f I metical precision exhibited in 

the building up of even this simple figure we owe to it all we 
possess of that which lifts man above the primitive savage, for 
it was not only the observation and study of the phenomena of 


1 Silver coin of Abdera in Thrace, with the Pythagorean four-square 

(Tetrax), B. C. 500: . 

2. Copper coin of Ancient Sicily showing eight-rayed sun in centre 

of Pythagorean Square. 

the heavens which engrossed the early Magi but the examina- 
tion, line by line and proportion by proportion, of these regular 
figures, drawing from them arithmetical schemes, which duly 
compared with those determined by the procession of the uni- 



l. Early Egyptian Scarabaeus with Cross, later extensively used by the Gauls. 
It has the quadruple significance of the elements of the Square, the Gamma- 
dion or Swastika, is a formula for the Squared Circle of equal area and the 
5x7 squares of tin- Septenary Calendar. 7-4 connects it with the Equilateral 
Triangle. (About XIV -XV Dynasty.) 

Coin <>f tlit- Veliocassi, Cauls inhabiting- the Valley of the Seine near Rouen 
at the time <>f Caesar's conquest. All of the emblems including the Sun Cross 
arc of the ancient Magianism. 

;:-i Reverses of Byzantine Coins showing the earliest form of the Crucifix, the 
letter X. The "10" of the Tetrax on a Latin cross. Its identity with the Ilu 
of the Maui need not be questioned. Both of these pieces bear busts of the 
Redeemer on their faces. 

verse, were deemed sacred and propitious in relative degree to 
their coincidence. 

The circular form of the horizon and of both Solar and Lu- 
nar discs, sufficed to bring this figure under speculative exam- 
ination from similar motives almost as soon as interest had been 
established in the phenomena of the cross and square. It was 
found that the circle was susceptible to all of the symbolical 

meanings of the square and that even 

®^^^^w in a more picturesque degree, also that 

^^|/\ boundaries might be described for ev- 
^sdKMiJ cry manner of plane surface, express- 
^^l^^y ed in every shade of polygonal grad- 
^^1^^ nation, from the three sided triangle 
through square and pentagon, hexa- 


gou and octagon, to the figure ot so many sides that further 
distinguishing of one from another became impossible, while 
every point on the perimeter seemed equi-distant from the cen- 
tre the Circle. Thus were the chief figures of what we now 
term "Geometry" established and their extension to the de- 
scription o\' solid masses made the basis of all that is involved 
in our physical science of to-day. 


It was found, upon experiment, that all of these figures 
possessed wonderful inter-relation, by which their volumes or 
extents might be compared with such precision that the pro- 
cesses might be described either through arithmetical formulae, 
or graphically, showing how by the designation of certain inter- 
mediate proportions, one figure could be instantly demonstrated 
to be equal in one or more respects to another. 

It now became suspected, and rightly, too, that these transi- 
tions had been the means employed by God in the creation of the 
universe to produce an apparent infinite variety of matter from 
a single elementary substance, designated as "chaos". 

Finally, the greatest triumph of all was achieved, the de- 
termination of the relations of the diameter or radius of a circle, 
to its circumference, known as the Pi (Greek letter n), propor- 
tion, giving rise to an arithmetical process by which the circle 
might be squared. 

It must be remembered that in the beginning these laborious 
researches were not pursued with any idea of rendering service 
to humanity by engendering inventions, or improving conditions. 
They were purely and simply enquiries into the nature of matter 
as far as could be derived from the latter 's ascertainable prop- 
erties, the processes of divine creation and the relation of the 
creature to the creator. 

At the same time the heavens were being eagerly scanned 
for corroboration of the theories being established below and 
strange as the sequel may show it to be, with results so far reach- 
ing as to extend their tremendous impress upon the human race 
down to the most intimate associations of the present time. 


Occupying themselves with both arithmetical numbers and 
geometrical proportions, they discovered that the precision of 
the latter was an infallible guide to the application of the form 
er and so built up the exact science of arithmetic, concerning the 
origin of which there have been so many fruitless speculations. 
For this purpose they employed from the very first the division 
of the square by the cross, finding- two systems of progression. 
each with a definite value and purpose and blending- at frequent 
intervals, one employing a single square as its unit or nucleus 
and building up around it on a. progressive ratio of 1—9—25 



etc., tin- other dividing a square by a cross into a group of four 
central compartments and building upon a consequent ratio of 
4 — 16—36 etc. (See Forty Seventh Problem), counting not only 
upon the total sums procured by each additional encircling row 
of squares, but the number in each row required to complete the 
circuit. It is from this latter scale that the three systems of no- 
tation which have reigned throughout the world, the Quatern- 
ary (2 — 4 — 8 — lb etc.,) employed by the Semites and the Chi- 
nese, the Decimal and the Duodecimal (by dozens) are derived. 

While the digital system of "fives" agrees with the Decimal 
system, it will be clearly perceived as this is examined into, that 
it was by no means its origin. 

In addition to the wonderful properties of the foregoing 
system was discovered a similar notation, built up by sub-di- 
rision of the Equilateral Triangle by other equilateral triangles. 
The smallest Dumber of Equilateral Triangles into which any 

one could be divided be- 
was found to be precise- 
square, starting from a 

inasmuch as by number- 
angles from left to right, 
row always expresses the 

ing four, the progression 
ly the same as that of a 
central group of four, 
ing the Equilateral Tri- 
the last figure of each 
"square" of the down- 

The Equilateral Triangle an infinite "Square" of numbers. The 
Squares from two to ten is 384, . the days of the ancient 
Interculary or "embolismic" year. 



ward counting number of the row, while each total is the same 
as the total of a square figure of an equal number of divisions per 
side. This coincidence was in itself enough to place the Equi- 
lateral Triangle on a parity with the square as a source of ' ' sac- 
red" numbers, but the multiple Equilateral Triangle, was dis- 
covered to embody many extraordinary arithmetical properties 
of its own not the least important of which was the development 
in the up-pointing Equilateral Triangles of the first four rows, 
of the famous TETRAX appropriated by Pythagoras as the bas- 
is of his own philosophical system. 

By the time this point was 
reached, the Magi had achiev- 
ed great dexterity in demon- 
strating the manifold yet al- 
ways orderly and mathemati- 
cally exact relations between 
the various geometrical figures 
of equilateral proportions and 
the circle, executing elaborate 
calculations by horizontal, per- 
pendicular and diagonal inter- 
sections of given squares which 
exhibited the results in pic- 
tures as well as sums. The dis- 
covery of the Tetrax, the sum of the first four digits equalling 
the whole number— 1+2+3+4=10, (Expressed by the four an- 
gles of the Cross), and the infinity of multiplications by nine 
reducible to nine (9x9=81 etc.,) encouraged experiments in sim- 
ilar operations with the sums of numbers, so that certain num- 
bers obtained significance not only with reference to their own 
properties but as the sums of dissimilar numbers added to- 
gether. As the sum of 1 to 4 was 10, so the sum of 1 to 7 was 
28, the sum of 1 to 8, 36, and the sum of 1 to 16, 136, all figures 
which came to have great significance in the Magian system. 

Thesr priests, prophets, astronomers and astrologers, grad- 
ually came to concern themselves with everything which could 
be accounted for through correspondences of form, number, or 
proportion and their great power was derived from their abil- 
ity to successfully demonstrate a relation of all which came un- 
der their range of observation to the heavenly bodies. 

Thai the mystical should predominate in their apprecia- 
tions is no more than natural. We shall see that without any 

The Tetrax of Pythagoras. 




charge of superstition they had a rig-lit to be awe stricken at 
some of then- discoveries and we shall before we have finished 
our examination, rather ask if we have not the same right to be 
held in wonderment ourselves. 

The mosl wonderful of all their achievements was their de- 
termination of the almost supernatural qualities attached to the 
number 64 (sixty four) which set out, according to their system 
in chequered squares, was undoubtedly the so-called "Mosaic 
pavement". This is stated by the Bible, (Exodus XXIV, 10) 
to have been revealed to Moses and the Seventy Elders upon 
Mount Sinai, where the congregation of Israel received God's 
direct command to employ it as a pattern for the plan of their 
Tabernacle and it also reaches us from the ancient Babylonians, 
Chinese and Egyptians, as the familiar kk draught", or Chess- 
Board. The number sixty-four is the heart of the entire Magian 
system, because around it and its central ''four" the Tetrax, 
revolves the whole numerical and geometrical system, to which 
the .Maui sought to reduce the universe and the centre of that is 
























Enlarged Impression of Ancient Babylonian Cylinder Seal showing 
Sun ami Cress as objects of worship. The first word of the Cuneiform 
Inscription is "Ilu" — The Cod. 




















Prehistoric Crosses of Ancient America. 1. Hopi, Moqui, Navajo and Zuni 
Indians of Arizona and New Mexico. 2-6. Crosses engraved on Shell gorgets by 
the Mound Builders. 7-8. Central American Crosses from Nicaragua. No. 3 is a 
Circle Squaring formula. No. 5 exhibits the "Dual principle" through the double 
curve which as the letter 'Jod' of the Semite expresses 10 or the Tetrax. 7-8 
are each allusions to the "Forty Seventh problem". 

D O □ 

a | 1 a 

d 1 1 a 

fa O ° 

U| I . =rn im 


HP - IE 

Crosses from the Habbakhorten Mosque in Kashmir, a district in 
which cruciform decorative features abound. Compare with those from. 
Central America. 



It Is essential that we do not forget in the midst of these 
arithmetical speculations, that the units with which we are deal- 
ing, are for the most part expressed by numbered squares. The 
reason for the selection of sixty -four, as the Divine number by 
the Magi, resided in the ascertained fact that upon the reduc- 
tion of their premises to the test of numbers, as expressed either 
geometrically, or arithmetically, sixty-four proved to be the de- 
terminating factor of each and every one. 

■Aletheia — Truth, Kabbalah. 


The true Mosaic Pavement, of Sixty-four Squares. 


Here are a few of the considerations involved: The chief 
significance of the number 64 aside from that of it being the 
cube of four, resides in its being the sum of 36 and 28. These 
numbers, according to the Magi, expressed the Sun and the 
Moon, respectively because the, by them computed Solar year 
was one of Three Hundred and Sixty days, or ten times 36, 
while the more closely computed Lunar year was one of thirteen 
times Twenty-eight, or Three Hundred and Sixty-four. These 
details may be verified by consulting any encyclopaedic article, 
or book upon the Calendar, ancient and modern. The discrepan- 
cy between the figures quoted and the true year amounts to five 
days, in one case and one in the other, but these lost days were 
utilized as feast days in Solar or Lunar honor and compensated 
for by intercalary years and the employment of cycles in the 
course of which all irregularities righted themselves. 

The real reason of this approximation, however, was to> 
bring the annual revolution of the universe into accord with 
the Quadrature of the Circle. A curious corroboration of this 
fact exists to this day in the ancient Jewish celebration of 
c'Hanukah, a festival which so closely coincides with Christ- 
mastide that there can be no doubt of its Solar inspiration. The 
rite involves the burning of a given number of candles during 
eight days, starting with one on the first day, two on the second 
and so on to the eighth day, when one additional candle called 
the Shammas candle (Babylonian Shamash, the Sun) is placed 

in front. The significance of this 

# scheme is entirely numerical. It 
is the addition of the digits 1 to 

# • 8, which we have already alluded 

• • • to, which produces the Solar 

number 36, that upon which the 

• • • initiates of the Pythagorean Mys- 

• • • • • teries were sworn to secrecy. The 

# # # # # # completed figure is that of an 

equilateral triangle, of eight. 
••••••• units to one side. The triangle- 

• •• ••••• again represents Adonai, or Tam- 

muz, in his Solar aspect and the 

• eight "squared" by the equilat- 
, eral triansrle is sixty-four. Thir- 

Dtegram Illustrating the .Jewish *' a1 /' u <^ ' /• j +tTTO „ 

c'Hanukah Observance, (The Greater fcy.gix UPWard pointing and. tWeU- 
Tetractys of Pythagoras.) J . ■. . i j ^^i^tln^ 

ty-eight downward pcmtmj 
smaller triangles. 



On the final day, the addition of the single candle gives the 
last row the value of nine, which is the diminutive of 36, leaving 
in the hack-round the full Lunar number of 28. This custom, 
which is undoubtedly the origin of the lighted candles of the 
Christmas Tree, must extend hack to the remotest antiquity. 

'Gnostic Triangle", Bz8x8, symbol of the Manifested Logos. Es- 
tablishes the relative Solar and Lunar numerical proportions. The 36 
upturned points correspond to the c'Hanukali diagram preceding. 

The dimunition of 36 and 28 to 9 and 7 is a matter of rela- 
tive proportion as well as of number, the latter being the Lowest 
factor- In which the same proportions are preserved and the 
Lesson sought to he inculcated is that nothing is too great to be 
brought within the ken of human intellect by such reduction. 

There are not only one but two squarings of the circle. One 
in which the perimeter, or Length o\' line of a given circle is -hown 
to be equal to that of a given square. The second is the pro- 
duction of a circle the contained area of which is equal to that- 
contained in a given square. 

The slight difference between the two circles which respond 
to one and the same square is in favor of the former. 



To discover the significance of the relative values of 9 and 
7 in this respect we must turn to the pyramid system of the an- 
cient Egyptians, who by the base line, sides, and vertical axes 
of these monuments expressed geometrical relations. The great 
Pyramid of Gizeh in this manner expresses the first named prob- 
lem, in its base of 5 and sides of 4, (5 plus 4 equals 9), while the 

Vertical sections of Egyptian Pyramids which express the two 
squarings of the Circle. 

other, if expressed in the same manner would call for base of 4 
and sides of 3, (4 plus 3 equals 7.) The vertical axis is in each 
case the radius of the correct circle while the base line of the 
pyramid is that of the square. The same proportions, different- 
ly expressed, are the basis of the wonderful Pythagorean prob- 
lem of the square on the hypothenuse, which conceals almost 
the entire Magian system. 

The agreement of 7x9—63, also comes so close to the united 
number as to nearly complete a numerical circle, 4X7+4X9= 
7 X 9-j_l = 64. 

On the "Chess-board" system of numeration, 4—12—20— 

28, we have 4+12+20 presenting the number 36, as a "square" 

lofo' (6 2 ) surrounded by 28 smaller squares. Another row of 36, 

'around, gives us a total of ONE EUNDRED, the '"square" of 10 

iand origin of the decimal system. Further instances abound in 

Other and widely varying demonstrations. 

II was certainly among the Magi that those interesting nu- 
merical puzzles known as "Magic Squares" had their rise. Os- 
I tensiblv the idea was to so align arithmetical numbers, display- 
| ed within a certain number of squares, that added in every sense, 
'thev would produce the same sum. 

" The idea of the " Magic Square" was not, however, as might 

I jibe supposed, due to human ingenuity, but is attributable entire- 

ly to a natural property of numbers, beginning with the zero ( ), 

I I rows of which, in sequence, and aligned so as to constitute hor- 
izontal and perpendicular series, invariably offer an identical 




addition in every sense, thus constituting the ILU 
figure arithmetically as well as geometrically. No 
more perfect example of this principle could be 
offered than the thirty-live squares of our famil- 
ial- monthly calendar, which always bring the 
-nine figures into perpendicular alignment. This 


















The ancient Septenary Calendar Tablet we still use. The outlined 
figures at the left show the manner of its perpetuation by continually 
setting to the left the right perpendicular row. 

calendar designed to exhibit, numerically tabulated with rela- 
tion to the month, four weeks of seven days, together with the 
three, or four, remaining to complete the mensual period is 
founded on a most curious Cabalistic "square", involving the 
elements of a table of multiplication, subtraction, division and 
addition, through the prime factor 7. 

The number of squares involved is 
only thirty-five, but a remarkable meta- 
physical hint is given in the upper left 
hand square of nine figures, when the 

month begins on a Monday. The sums of 
the cruciform additions are each 24, 
three of them 1—8—15, 7 — 8—9, 2—8— 
14, but the remaining fourth is 8—16, 
clearly indicating an unrecorded thirty- 
sixth figure— a zero, the symbol of the 
INon-being-Being", which sustains such an important role in 



the theosophy of the ancient world. Upon the 35 square the 
cipher "0" does not exist until the relation between the 8 and 
the 16 shows that a symbol for non-existence must be placed in 
advance of the figure "1", to complete the divine symbol. The 
"0" possesses the same significance with reference to the "X" 
of 8—0, 7 — 1, and the cross of 80 of which the 2 is the apex. 
Thus the position of the zero "0" is shown clearly to precede 
"1" instead of following "9" and to demonstrate metaphysical- 
ly the existence of non-existence prior to the development of 
"1" the Pythagorean "Monad", or first manifestation of exist- 

The square thus symbolizes the "Xon-be- 
ing-Being", the Trinity, the Circle and Diam- 
eter, Beginning and End, 7+0=7, the Lunar 
number, 8+1=9, the Solar Number. 1—0, 
*JI © "Ten", the Tetrax, also symbolized by 1—2— 

3—4, 1—7=28 (Lunar), 1—8=36 (Solar) and 
7 + 8+l+0=16, the "TetragrVmmaton" This 
is the true Cabalistic interpretation of the beginning of the Di- 
vine labor of Creation on the first day of the week, followed by 
a cessation of labor and repose upon the recurring period of the 
lunar septenary, which is the inspiration of the whole arrange- 

The amplification of the diagram to forty compartments, for 
the sake of demonstrating the Cabalistic relation of the numbers, 
one to another, in ao way obscures its identification, as the eter- 
nal measure of fleeting time. Its base of eight squares and vert- 
ical axis of five squares will at once show it to be another of the 

mysteries embodied in the Great 
Pyramid of Gizeh. 

A most curious example of 
the Magic Square, from which is 
said to have been derived the 
Jewish appellation of the eternal 
Elohim, is a combined Magic 
Square and anagram of the He- 
brew form of the word ALHIM, 
l< DVtfK"> having a numerical ex- 
pression of d —40, •<— 10, n 5, 
^_3 ?s _L, or 4-1— 5— 3—1. Ar- 
ranged in a square of 5x5. it 
reads as here exhibited:— 















It will be Men that the play is upon the numbers 3, 4 and 5, 
that the word ALIILM reads from the bottom to the top and left 
to righl as a cross. The centre is a Sun-Cross 
adding !) in either sense, in the midst of a 9 
square of 28, while the top horizontal and left 
perpendicular lines are 3 — 1—4 — 1 — 5 (deci- 
mal I y 3.1415), which is the mathematical for- 
mula of the n proportion. The central Cross 
also supplies another circle squaring formula 
to the Initiate. 

There are several other Magic Squares extant which are of 
self-evident Magian origin, but none transcending in vital in- 
terest that which, away back at the dawn of civilization was 
deemed worthy to serve as a plan of the Heavens and key to the 






Mithraic Gem showing the Cross as a 
BOlar emblem at the extreme left. 

Zodiacal coin of Peiinthus 
showing Mithras enthroned 
with above his head the Sun 
represented by a Cross. 


That the discovery of the arithmetical qualities of this 
square antedated the usage to which it was put there is not the 
shadow of a doubt. The latter is altogether arbitrary. Scien- 
tists have puzzled their brains for ages as to why there were just 
twelve signs of the Zodiac, precursurs of the twelve gods of 
Olympus^ the twelve tribes of Israel and the twelve Apostles, 
but so far as we can inform ourselves, no wonderment has ever 
been expressed that there should be four seasons instead of two, 
why the Mexicans should have adopted a Zodiac of twenty ani- 
mal figures and why the Chinese should have taken an inner 
Zodiac of twelve figures and an outer one of twenty-eight con- 
stellations (the Astrological "Houses of the Moon"), together 
with a cycle of twelve years. The application is world wide, 
from Pekin to Peru, westwardly, but the correspondence with 
the Magian cosmogonic square of Sixty-four- (4 — 12 — 20 — 28) 
was too strong to escape attention and the temptation to seek to 
discover if it was more than accidental, pressing. Recent exper- 
iments with the Magic Squares offered the suggestion of con- 
secutively numbering the squares of each row according to their 
Zodiacal sequence, commencing with the central "4" and giving 
the number kk 1 " to the first of the Seasons, the Spring Equinoc- 
tial. Directly beneath this would come Aries, placing Taurus, 
the second sign of the western Zodiac in the proper corner. 
Commencing the following two rows immediately below in turn, 
in each case brought the Equinoctial and Solstitial signs into 

E | S 


their proper corners: ^'w with the following result: 









17 18 





































The immeasurably ancient Magian Square which gave the Zodiacal system 
i<> the world and so lies at t lie root of all religions past and present. The cen- 
tral square at once explains the Cross as the symbol of "Ten", l 2 3 4. 

A few minutes study, forces one to the realization that here 
is to be round the most remarkable "Magic Square" of an- 
tiquity, a conviction which hours of experiment only serve to 

Naturally, acquaintance with the Pythagorean system of 
arithmetical metaphysics fits the possessor for readier percep- 
tion- than are possible without it, but enough is readily appar- 
ent to show to even the casual observer the extraordinary char- 
acter of the combination. 


The same results which are otherwise obtainable and dem- 
onstrable through geometrical figures are here also presented 
through arithmetical numbers, the whole scheme being evidently 
intended to exhibit the creative functions of the number- k, .'>" 
and "4", the powers of the Tetrax, (1-2-3-4) and the revelation 
of the cross. The first figure which obtains our attention is the 
cross instituted by the fourth and fifth vertical lines with the 
fourth and fifth horizontal lines. The sum of each is 13(3, but so 
divided that the fifth vertical column contains 36 and the fourth 
100. The sums of the fourth and fifth horizontal columns are 
both 68, totalling 136 but the left arm of the cross adds 36 and 
the right arm 100, while the halves of the upright bar each add 
up 68. The central cross is of the Solar 36 exhibited as 10+26 
=36, 18+18=36, alternating in the same manner while the diag- 
onals in the inner square are 22 + 14=36; the whole giving the 

complete ILTJ figure of — 2w£_ 36, every number or group 

of four numbers constituting the centre of a perfect numerical 

The supreme secret of the entire square of 64 numbers is, 
however, revealed by its own diagonals, which are 11+8+5+2, 
4+11+18+25=84, and 18+13+8+3+1+2+ 3+4 equalling 52, 
B total of again 136 as added hut as multiplied 84x52 equalling 
4368, which will he found also upon computation to be the sum 
of 364 12, or one cycle of twelve Lunar years. 

The addition of the vertical columns supply sums which are 
remarkable factors to the ancient calendar year of 360 days (es- 
pecially the number 21), the ' < synodical ' ' period between full 
moons), while the horizontal additions are in precisely reversed 
halves L16 92—76-68—68—76-92—116, a sum total of <04, 
agaiu a number of marvellous significance when explained. The 
"as above below" additions of dissimilar numbers, occupying 
relative places in the upper and lower halves of the square is 
also a sou.,-, of perpetual curiosity. Finally, as far as the writer 
has been able to discover, the sixteen cardinal point numbers 
tfhich are 11m. diagonals of the whole square constitute m them- 



selves a " Magic Square 








Tin- Mai 

Square of th 
l »oints. 

". do less remarkable, being as follows: 
The sum total is, of course, 52+ 

S. 84=136. The additions are ver- 
tically and horizontally identical, 
though reversed, 10 — 2(i — 4-2 — 58. 
The sums of the nine sets of four 
contiguous squares are 26 — 74 — 
10 — 26 — 34 — 50—18—18-^0, 
numbers which inter-add. com- 
bine and re-combine in changes 
upon the grand total of 136 (it- 
self 1 plus 3 plus 6 equals 10) in 
a manner which can hardly be 
conceived by anyone who has not 
made 1 the experiments. The cen- 
tral and outer pa rail el Is are al- 
cardmai ways 68, as is also the sum of the 
two diagonals. 

It will not pass unnoticed by those acquainted with the for- 
mula of the squaring of the circle for equal perimeters that the 
base of the square being equal to 8 and the radius of the circle 
equal to 5 identical measures that the 84 — 52 of the figure to 
which we have been giving attention, is within a minute fraction 
of the same proportions besides expressing the "ILU" figure to 
perfection. This method of procuring numerical crosses being 
continuable to infinity gave the ancients' conception of the star- 
ry universe, of which they took it as a type and we have every 
reason to believe that this plan (possibly extended to 12x12, or 
the 144 square) was the basis of Saint John's mystery of the 
Heavenly City of the Apocalypse. 

Thai it was one of the numerous mysteries embodied in the 
Pythagorean problem (47th of Euclid) and which must have 
been the very centre of the philosophical speculations of the 
Pythagorean school at Crotona is self demonstrable. The tablet 
here given is restricted to the proportions of (i4, or 8x#, as with- 
in those confines are found the considerations most important 
to our present essay. As we have said, however, the system of 
which it is the centre is extensible to infinity witli identical re- 
sults. Every square, except those lying directly on the middle 
vertical line below the Zodiac, where highest and lowest figures 
meet, whether of one, four, nine, sixteen, or other number bound- 
ed by four equal sides, is the centre of a numerical cross. The 



Pythagorean problem exhibits three such Crosses, which may be 
realized by merely omitting the corner squares. They may be 
utilized thus, as guides, in counting. 

The Clues to the Arithmetical dosses of the Forty 
Seventh emblem. 

Thick East [ndian Native Copper Coins bearing th< 
ancienl Cruciform Symbols of the Magi. 

Egyptian Mohammedan Coins 
with t he Numerica I < Crosses ol 
the Pythagorean Problem. 



Turkish Coin struck 
under Sultan Man- 
mud [I. A. H. 1233 
;n Bag-dad, showing 
the Pyl hagorea n Tel - 

Aunt her Turkish coin 
of same period show- 
ing Solar-Lunar geo- 
metrical figures. 

Stater Of MallOS, An- 
cient Greece, show- 
ing Pyramid wi' 1 
Circle-squa r ing f or- 
mula A-r (4-::i. Cir- 
ca B. C. ■ 



Devices of early Irish coins of the Norman rulers showing evidence 
of Magi an knowledge. 

A © 

The astonishing fact is also apparent that on all Crosses of 
which the centra] TETRAX (1-2-3-4) is the heart, the halves 
of the vertical lines will he found to equal the halves of the hor- 
izontal arm after the following 
formula: A-B, (MI and C-E, D-F 
arc equal amounts, the sums of 
A-B and (J-II will he unequal, the 
sums of C-E and D-F will be 
equal and those of C-D and E-F 
unequal, bul C-D will equal A-B ( 
and (J-II will equal E-F, while 
A G and B-H equal C-E and D-F ' 
respectively . 

The formulation of the rule by 
which this wonderful chart is 
governed may be possible to an 
advanced mathematician, bul it 
seems to the writer and re-discoverer to, while making apparent 
m:n y intt resting arithmetical principles, defy exhaustive analy- 
sis. Many of the "Magic Squares" involved count, not only 
vertically and horizontally but diagonally, in the same sums, as 

1 ffl 












wholes, equal or unequal parts, 
A Magic Square which exhibits 
the 68-136 potentiality in the very 
highest degree exists as the very 
heart of the Calendar, with the 
additional peculiarity, that it ex- 
hibits the larger sum as an OC- 
TAGON as well as in the usual 
ILU form. The ground which 
we have covered, in this necessa- 
rily short resume of a tremen- 
dous subject, is, while it covers 
the essential features, but an in- 
finitesimal part of the stupen-. 
dous whole. 

The real study only begins here, when, one by one, we apply 
the test of either number or proportion to the whole range of 
ancient symbolisms, and discover that they and the philosophies 
of which they are the illustrations are all parts and parcels of 
the one great cosmic mystery. 

Swastikas, Triquetras, Crosses, Suns, Stars and Crescents, 
Anklis, Taus, the "palmettos", lotuses and ornamental traceries 
of Palace and Temple, The gods of Olympus, the Pyramids of 
the old world and the new, the "Calendar-Stones" of the Aztecs, 
the " Prayer-sticks" of the Cncas, the Totems of the frozen north, 
the Labarynth through which roamed the Cretan Minotaur, the 
winged Bulls of Sargon and Sennecherib, the hidden wisdom of 
Mede, Persian, Assyrian, Babylonian, Chaldean, Israelite, Hin- 
doo, Gaul, Viking, Mongol and painted savage are all bound up 
in the system which we have jusl dissected in part and which 
affords countless proofs of its authenticity in the sense claimed 
for it, now in our poi session. 

Besl of all, we find the entire unfolding of the theological 
system, which beginning with the forecasts of the Sabaean Magi, 
shaped the prophecies of Israel and culminated in the mystery 
of the fulfilling life, passion and death of Jesus, the Christ. 

We find therein l he key to the tribal and heraldic devices 
Of the ancient world and the beginnings of modern Heraldry. 

We learn the secret of the architecture of the temple and 
the orientation of the sacred grove. 

All these were derived in secret from the mysteries of Soli- 
Lunar geometry and it adds not a little to our wonderment to 



find in the revelations of the microscope concerning the struc- 
ture of various kinds of matter, that no laws of structural pro- 
portions or types of form arc to be discovered higher than those 
wonderful figures worshipped by our ancestors thousands of 
years ago. 


The division of the perfect square into sixty-four quadri- 
lateral divisions, is one which from the wide range of its appli- 
cations to ancient symbolism, must have been held in peculiar 
reverence, by those who extracted from it so mucli pertaining to> 
their most sacred contemplations. As we have already hinted, 
its identity with the legendary Mosaic pavement of Solomon's 

Temple, is far from problematical.* 

In our easy familiarity with the 
more common mathematical processes, 
connected with our ordinary daily trans- 
actions, we seldom if ever stop to reflect 
upon the fact, that both the numbers we 
use and the systems upon which we use 
them, had to be evolved and perfected, 
at some stage of the world's history. 

Judging by the mathematical per- 
fection of most of the monuments of an- 
tiquity, which have remained to our day, 
the man of B. C. 5,000 was little intellect 
tually inferior to his descendant of our 
own time. Having been enabled to form 
an estimate of his reliance upon geomet- 
rical formula, as the basis of all truth, human and divine, let us 
see if many of our most familiar emblems, do not owe more than. 
passing association to such convictions. 

We have no need to enter into a dissertation upon the Game' 
ol* Chess, to prove either the antiquity of that game or of its 
companion, Draughts, or "Checkers", for that of both is attest- 
ed l,\ history to extend backward to the dawn of civilization. 

Jar of the Bronze Age 
found oear Bologna, Italy. 
Decorated With Swastikas, 
Circles and hints at the 3-4 

—Then went up Moses and Aaron, Nadab and Abihu, and seventy of the eld- 

* "Andlhey saw the Cod of Israel: and there was under his feet as it were 
a ..«».-.i »ork of a aannhire stone, and as it were the body of hea\en u 

a l>a\«»»l work of a sapphire stone an 
.harness." Exodus XXIV, vv. 9-10. 

Id A — . ■ 1 - . - . 1 _ 41. .1 4k * w . n1»A i linrtl 'iff 

3S"l»ff7ilTt8?LK- them after their pattern, which was shewed the* 
in the mount." Ibid. XXV, 40. 


We do ask, however, why the number "(;4 , \ should have 
been selected not only as that of the squares of the Chess Board, 
but to figure in countless association- with religio-geometrical 
formula and we think we answer the question partly in our 
statement, that as the sum of 36 and 28, it became sacred to the 
Sun and the Moon, and consequently to all religion of Solar- 
Lunar inception, while its exact half, 32, has uses and a symbol- 
ical significance entirely its own, of the highest importance. 

The ancients had the same moral conviction as ourselves, in 
their case based upon pure geometry, that the Supreme Being 
was made up of infinite space, infinite time, infinite wisdom, 
power, strength, and truth, the latter expressed above all math- 
matically and geometrically. 

The mathematical axiom of truth, is that it must iit all other 
truths just as untruths could only be made to fit other untruths, 
which must be manufactured to fit them. 

Therefore, geometrical symbols of Divinity must prove 
themselves, by their entire fidelity, not only to the known facts 
of the visible and calculable universe, but by their accordance, 
one with the other, so that whatever the apparent differences, 
the application of the Solar-Lunar mathematical, or geometriq 
test would attest by the preciseness of its results, the principle 
of Divinity. 

The most ancient expression of the Supreme Being, is that 
of the "square", typifying the universe and divided into four 
equal parts by a cross, indicating intrinsically, the outstretching 
of arm- from a centre to touch the limits of space as does the 
Sun, and developing by its relation to its sides a Swastika, typ- 
ical of the eternal revolution of time, a circular movement, cor- 
responding with the disc of the Sun. 

To entirely surround the four square, thus 
constituted with squares of exactly equal size, 
requires, as we have seen, just twelve and these 
are the squares to which were apportioned, 
the signs of the Zodiac, the entire six- 
teen constituting the famous " Tetragramma- 
ton" of the Jewish - Kabbalah". We have noted that the total 
of these squares is one fourth of 64 and one twenty-fourth part 
of 384. Another boundary of squares, on the outside of this 
requires 20 to establish, which is an eighteenth of 360 and added 
to the 1(5 within makes 36, the tenth of the same number. An- 
other row all around, adds 28 squares, a thirteenth of 364, bring- 



Eight pointed Cross representing ob- 
jectively the number Sixty-four. 

Lng the sum of all up to (54. The 
larger figures will be at once 
recognized as the basis of most 
of the ancient Calendars. 

It is not patent to our pres- 
ent argument, but important 
as showing the natural origin 
of the decimal system, that a 
single additional row of 
squares requires exactly 36 and 
that the total thereof is one 
hundred. This number will 
then be made up of four equal 
divisions of 25 squares, each of 
which, taken in the same sense, 
will be found to be built up around one central square, on a scale 
of 1+8+16=25. We have reviewed the sacred significance of 
these squares, as expressed in numbers. 

It seems almost impossible to convert these 100, or 64 
squares into anything but Calendrical figures, by the subtrac- 
tion of small squares from the corners, so as to produce Latin 
Crosses, or by symmetrical diagonal intersection, the form of 
the so-called Maltese and other Crosses, which occasion so much 
surprise in those who, supposing them to belong exclusively to 
modern Heraldry, find them as amulets, on the necks and wrists 
of Babylonian, Ninevite and Persian Monarchs of the earliest 
dynasties. There is no doubt, but that the original Cross and 

Swastika, were the lines indicat- 
ing divisions, but by extension 
they came to have compart- 
ments of their own and we find 
them blocked out on the square 
of (J4, oi' in more numerous di- 
visions as perfect geometrical 
symbols of the Chronological 
cult of the times which produced 
them. The whole family of 
Crosses and Swastikas, as well 
as of certain pointed crosses, 
which partake of both the na- 
ture of crosses and stars, belong 

So-called "Jerusalem" Cross. A di- "" " , 

vision of sixty-four into thirty-six j n their entiretv to the nature- 

and twenty-eight J 

; f j 1 ! —--- 




A bronze fibula or brooch of the ancient 
Etruscans, of which a Swastika is the 
principal motif. 

of Solar amulets, blocked out upon such squares. All specula- 
tion as to the reason for the selection of given numbers for the 
division of time is entirely silenced by this remarkable testimo- 
ny, which embraces the most sacred symbolism of the ancient 

world and connects it with 
our own age, by an associa- 
tion at once touching and re- 
assuring of unswerving pur- 
pose in the eternal inten- 
tion. In the presence of these 
time hallowed monuments 
of the Mede and Persian, 
Chaldean and Babylonian, 
Jew and Gentile, Mongol 
and Scyth, Greek and Lat- 
in, Hindoo and Celt, Blonde 
Scandinavian, swarthy 

Redskin and tatooed Maori. 
the veil of time is torn away indeed and we realize that the eter- 
nal Kronos is He who is and was and ever shall be. 

There is to be found, scattered among the libraries of the 
world, a great mass of pre-historic cross and Swastika litera- 
ture, devoted, not to elucidation of the mysteries they are re- 
puted to conceal, but to marvel at their inexplicability, in view 
of their undoubted universality. There is no denying that the 
Cross was a world wide symbol, ages before it became com- 
memorative of the Christian religion, and we think that in the 
preceding narrative, we have t brown much light upon the reas- 
ons why. 

Says Mis. Murray- Aynsley, in her: kk Symbolism of the Kast 
and West." (George Redway, London, 1900). 

tv It is only within the last 1'ew years that the Cross lias been 
known to have existed among the pre-historic peoples of North 
America, as well as among some of its present Indian tribes, 
who use it both as a Sun and a weather symbol. The so-called 
"Mound Builders", were also familiar with the cross. 

In a narrow valley, near the little town of Tarlton, Ohio, 
there is a remarkable earthwork, in the form of a Greek Cross. 
It is raised about three feet above the adjacent surface, round 
it is a shallow ditch, exactly corresponding to its outline. 
Amongst other relics which have been found, on opening some 
of these mounds, are inscribed shells, or shell "gorgets", as 



they have been styled, on the as- 
sumption that they were prob- 
ably neck and throat ornaments. 
One of the most remarkable, is 
the so-called Bird gorget, in the 
centre of which is a Cross of the 
Greek type (illustrated), placed 
within a circle, around which is 
a star of twelve points, an appar- 
ent combination of the Cross 
and the Sun. Opposite the four 
arms of the Cross"(and as Mrs. 
Murray- Aynsley fails to note, 
constituting a Swastika) are 
rudely drawn bird's heads." 
European savants concur in at- 
testing the existence all over the 
European Continent, of Sun, Moon, and Fire symbols, (Fire be- 
ing accepted as symbolical of the heavenly luminaries), which 
are cut upon stones and boulders in a variety of ring, cup and 
cross shapes, and as ornaments belonging to the Bronze Age, are 
to be found the " Wheel Cross', considered to be an emblem of 
the chariot in which, according to the most ancient belief, the 
Sun was supposed to drive through the sky." 

The famous "Bird Gorget" a shell 
breast pendant of the Ohio Mound 
Builders, made ages before Colum- 
bus discovered America. The 3-4 
proportion is numerically given in 
the waved line at the right. 





Swastikas and C 
the Habbakhorl 

■osses comb 
>n Mosque, 

(i, fro 

Corean Amulets showing the 
Swastika Cross surrounded by 
Solar ravs. From H. A. Rams- 
dens "Corean Charms and Amu- 

The Jesuil Father, Louis Gaillard, of Shanghai, China, who 
is the world's greatesl authority on the subject in hand, says m 
his learned treatise " Croix et Swastika en Chine". "The Swas- 



tika is of great relative age in Asia, because it is found men- 
tioned in the Ramayana (on the boat of Rama). Elsewhere, the 
Buddhist books pretend that when the mourners desired to burn 
the body of Gautama Sakyamouni, (Sakyamouni, means Scyth- 
ian Prince-Buddha was a white Aryan of what would now be 
called Slavonic extraction) his remains were found to be incom- 
bustible by natural fire. Suddenly, however, a flame burst forth 
from the Swastika tatooed upon his breast and reduced the 
corpse to ashes. The most striking feature of this symbol, is its 
universality in all times and in every place. 

It is found throughout the immense region bounded by the 
British Esles and those of Japan, taking in not only all of Asia, 
but the African coasts and Mediterranean archipelago, where it 
was in use at the time of Confucius. (050-479 B. C). Crossing 
the Atlantic, (or the Pacific), it is found among the Peruvians, 
and Mexicans, of the "New AVorld", in Yu- 
catan, Paraguay and all over the North 
American Continent. There is no import- 
ant excavation of an ancient site made, 
which does not reveal it and the time does 
not seem far distant when we shall be able 
to constitute a map of its geographical area, 
which will be greater than that of civiliza- 
tion. When shall we be able to determine 
the time when our ancestors, Iranian, or Tu- 
ranian, first evolved it! It seems beyond 
the possibility of doubt that the " Swasti- 
ka", to preserve its Indian name, was above 
all and before all a symbol in the mysterious, 
or mystic sense. Christian archaeologists 
have vied with each other, in searching for 
proof that the Swastika was the most an- 
cient form of the Sign of the Cross". In 
this they are correct, the moment that it is 
admitted that combined with the Latin cross 
in the square, it represented the universal 
God of time and space, whose personal sym- 
bol was the Sun. M. Mortillet, author of "La Musee Pre-histor- 
ique" and Le Signe de la Croix avant le Chris tianisme, affirms 
that the cross is simply borrowed from the old Indian religions 7 \ 
The origin of the cross has been most erroneously sought in the 
Egyptian "symbol of life", the Ankh, as well as in the Swastika. 

Swastika in bead- 
work of North Amer- 
ican Indians. 



Neither assumption is correct in the sense sought to be conveyed. 
The employment of the latter as one of the characters of the 
Chinese dictionary as the arbitrary sign for Wan, meaning 
10,000, but extension given the sense of infinity, is a key to its 
primitive sense. The Japanese acclamation Ban Zai, is only 
the Chinese Wan Soi, ten thousand years and the "ten thous- 
and" is equally expressible 
by a Swastika or Wan, a scorpi- 
on, the body of which is compos- 
ed of a cross, within a circle (old 
style), or within a square (new 
style). The reverence in which 
the Swastika is held by Budd- 
hists, is evinced by its multiple 
application to the famous sign of 
the foot-prints of Buddha, which 
are cut in the rocky paths, in all 
countries where the cult of Saky- 
mouni is paramouunt, for the ad- 
oration of the faithful — an ex- 
ample which Roman Christians 
have not failed to copy (See 
The presence of many six petalled flowers, (or 
the kt Wheel of the Law" — or Sun disc, speak 

The "Footprint! 

if Buddhi 

"Quo Vad:V). 
stai s), surroundin 
for themselves. 

Dr. Schliemann says that From 
the remotest ages, Cross and 
Swastika alike, have been the 
most ancient symbols of our Ar- 
yan ancestors and George Moore 



( Jeremon i 

al Apron of ancient people 
of Nicaragua with Cross of the "Tet- 
rax" and sixteen pen( 


inserts 1 

(page L6), a significant symbol 
which he calls the "Tree of l»udd- 
ha", without, however, disclos- 
ing its origin. 

The spread of the cross and 
Swastika over the whole expanse of the American ( ontinent, to- 
gether with ample evidence that geometrical stars and figures 
derived tll e r efrom were widely venerated, is attested by the 
splendid records of the Smithsonian Institute of Washington and 
various l. S. Government surveys, conducted at the expense of 
the Department pf the Interior, the records of which have been 



printed from time to time. While the Mounds of California 
have proved most prolific of cruciform symbolism, no part of 
America is exempt, Ohio and Tennessee being particularly fav- 
ored. As for Mexico, the home of the far famed Palenque and 
countless other symbolical crosses, and Central America, we re- 
serve their interesting phases of the subject for more extended 

The Swastika is extensively employed on the coins of the 
Greeks, Bactrians, Western Mongols and peoples of India. We 
have noticed at least one instance of it in connection with the 
six-pointed star of the Mohammedan coins, and we have it in 
our possession roughly outlined in hlue pigment on the breast 

Japanese decorative patterns in which the lines form Swastikas 
and the plane figures are Crosses. 

of one of the three figures of a baked clay Triad of the PuebiO 
[ndians o\' Arizona. Even so distinguished an Orientalist as the 
late Professor ^\Iax Muller was not, upon his own written state- 
ment to Dr. Schliemann, who had desired him to throw if possi- 
ble, some light upon it, able to give any reasonable explanation 
of the Swastika, beyond its etymology from the Sanscrit, its 
mention in the Rig- Veda, as one of the signs employed in mark- 
ing cattle and its Buddhistic associations. It was, said he T the 
firsl oi' the sixty-five auspicious signs recognized by Buddhists 
in the sacred foot-prints of the Master and among- the Jains, the 
sign of their seventh Jinn (Genie) Suparsva. 

The use oi' the Swastika in place of the Sun on coins and 
other objects has long been recognized by scholars, the only al- 
ternative thought of any value suggested, that given the em- 
ployment by the ( hinese of a square containing a Cross to indi- 
cate an inclosed space of earth, it might have meant by exten- 
sion the terrestrial world. 


This latter notion has more 
behind it than casually meets 
the eye. The Swastika is cer- 
tainly a symbol of the revolution 
of some body or system. It too 
often alternates with wheel and 
cross amid the same attendant 
symbols for this not to be ap- 
parent, but its specialized form 
gives it the right to considera- 
tion upon its own individual 

Our demonstration of its de- 

sh^rtK sw^^itSln^h velopment, first from the linear 
Se Tw% 5r?^SXin| 01 tLX , Sk 8 i elements of the crossed 


cicniciito ui iiitf urusstsu square 
and then as a geometrical figure 
of definite contents, as an un- 
mistakable figure of the revolution of the whole Solar system, 
would lead us to regard it as a symbol of planetary revolution in 
general, applicable to any revolving body of the universal cos- 
mogany, but of rourse more especially to the Sun. 

The whole problem hangs upon the amouunt of assumption 
which we are warranted in entertaining that all of the ancients, 
were at all times densely ignorant of the present known facts of 
the procession of the universe. 

This is a question, which has been much under discussion 
without being brought to any such satisfactory conclusion that 

Science has felt warranted in 
pronouncing dogmatically upon 
it. We however have the au- 
thority of many of the ancient 
writers not only for the globu- 
lar form of the earth, but for the 
existance of conditions in far 
distant regions which are the 
direct result of this form of the 
earth coupled with its relations 
to Sun and Moon as at present 
ascertained and also of the an- 
cient knowledge of lands vul- 
garly held to be discovered at a 
much later period of the world's 

A Chinese lattice with the Swastika hivtnrv 
on Solai "■ ' i ■••., ms (Vntnil >lolir. lU-mviJ- 


The earliest known teacher of the globular form of the Earth 
was Pythagoras Eudoxus of (nidus, who lived circa 370-60 B. C. 

at which time he offered the mathematical proofs of his asser- 
tion and was the instigator of the division of both celestial and 
terrestrial plans into zones. 

A huge globe, so divided, was constructed at Pergamum, 
by one ('rates of Mallos (l()0-50 B. C.) (See Coin of Mallos, page 
36), and the representation of a celestial sphere in the hands of 
Crania, goddess of Mathematics, was only one of its significant 
applications in early times. The subject of the Swastika brings 
us to the consideration of one of the most remarkable of all Dr. 
Schliemann's discoveries at Hissarlik on the site of ancient Troy, 
that of terra-cotta spheres or small globes upon some of which 
are clearly indicated the Sun and Moon with many stars and 
others of which are marked with encircling* zones or bands, ex- 
actly in number and position indicating the Artie, north tem- 
perate, equatorial, south temperate and antartic regions, the 
path of the Sun around the equator being marked with a circle 
of Swastikas, and a single sign like a capital "N" laid on its 
side. There was a bitter controversy between Professor Schlie- 
maim and his critic, Dr. E. Brentano of Prankfort-on-the-Main, 
upon the subject of these clay balls, the latter vehemently con- 
tending that they so conclusively proved that the people who 
piod need them were so well acquainted with the globular form 
of the earth that the locality claimed to be Homer's Troy by, 
Dr. Schliemann, must be comparatively modern. 

Mr. Edward Thomas, of London, who shares with Father 
Louis Gaillard, S. J., the reputation of special competence con- 
cerning Swastika signs, has said in his ''Indian Swastika and 
Its Western Counterparts", "As far as I have been able to trace 
or connect the various manifestations of this emblem, they one 
and all resolve themselves into the primitive conception of solar 
motion which was intuitively associated with the rolling or 
wheel like projection of the Sun, through the upper or visible arc 
of the heavens, as understood and accepted in the crude astron- 
omy of the ancients. The earliest phase of astronomical science 
we are at persent (1880) in a position to refer to, with the still 
extant aid of indigenous diagrams, is the Chaldean. The repre- 
sentation of the Sun, in this system commences with a simple 
ring or outline circle, which is speedily advanced towards the 
impression of onward revolving motion by the insertion of a 
cross or four wheel like spokes within the circumference of the 



normal ring. As the original Chaldean emblem of the Sim was 
typified by a single ring, so the Indian mind adopted a similar 
definition which remains to this day as the ostensible device or 
caste mark of the modern Sauras or Sim worshippers. The ten- 
dancy of devotional exercises in India, indeed, seems from the 
firts to have lain in the direction of mystic diagrams and crypto 
symbols rather than in the production of personified statues of 
the gods, in which is must be confessed that unlike the Greeks. 
the Hindoos did not attain a high style of art." 

Adds Schliemann, "The 



may be found 

in nearly all countries of Europe and in many countries of Asia. 
We see them on one of the three pot bottoms found on Bishop's 
Island near Konigswalde, on the right bank of the Oder as well 
as on a vase found at Reichersdorf near Guben. A whole row of 

Fragmenl of Archaic Gre 
scene in which both SwastUcs 
i ii 1 1 are lavishly employed, 

k Vase discovered at Athens. A funeral 
s and other indications of a geometrical 

them may be seen round the famous pulpit of St. Ambrose at Mi- 
lan. The sign occurs a thousand times in the Catacombs of 
Rome. We find it very frequently in the wall paintings of Pom- 
peii, even more than one hundred and sixty times in the so-called 
Streel of Vesuvius. We see it in three rows and thus repeated 



sixty times upon an ancient Celtic funeral urn found at Shrop- 
liani in the Comity of Norfolk, and now in the British Museum. 
I find it very often on ancient Athenian and Corinthian vases 
and exceedingly frequent on the jewels in the Royal tombs at 
Mycenae, also on the coins of Leucas and Syracuse and in the 
large mosaic in the Boyal palace garden in Athens. The Rev. 
W. Brown Kerr, who visited me in 1872 at Hissarlik, assured 
me that he had seen it innumerable times in the most ancient 
Hindoo temples and especially on those of the Jains. I see also 
a Swastika on a vase which was found in the County of Lipto, in 
Hungary, and is preserved in the collection of Majlath Bela; 
further on terra cottas found in the cavern of Barathegy, Hun- 
gary." . L . 

Most scholars resident in China have been so impressed with 
the prevalence of the Swastika, ancient and modern, singly and 
as the motif of innumerable decorations that they have become 
convinced that it was thoroughly Chinese, while during the Ash- 
antee war some rectangular and hexagonal bronze weights were 

The form of Swastika known as the "Triskeles", which the Island of 
Sicily anciently used as its symbol. This is a Solar symbol of Thirty- 
Six Triangles inspired by the almost triangular shape of the island. 


looted at Coomassie which bear the most perfect Swastikas im 

We have quoted in the foregoing a mass of testimony to all 

of our contentions, including all the distorted view points which 
savants have been constrained to assume because of the utter ab 
sence of any clue to the primitive intention. The secrecy and 
esotericism of all peoples or records which could have been ex 
pected to throw any light on the subject is most plain. 

Xo association of the Swastika with other Solar, Lunar and 
geometrical symbols any where approaches in volume and im 
portance their employment on the coins of the Celts over their 
entire path from the Mediterranean to the North Sea. They 
seem to be inseparable from Druidical worship. The writer 
possesses, himself, coins of the Veliocasses, a Gaulish tribe which 
settled before the dawn of north European history, in the valley 
of the Seine, just above the Parisii, which unites the five pointed 
geometrical pentalpha to an "ILU" Solar symbol, flanked by 
bird and reptile, precisely as we find this combination on the 
national emblems of Chinese and Japanese to-day.* Of Zodiacal 
signs, geometrical figures, Celtic crosses, diapered (Chess-board) 
squares, triangles, Pyramids and "Zigurats" there is no end, in 
fact we find all the essential features of our whole proposition 
in vast profusion extending over immense expanses of territory 
embracing Spain, France and Ireland. 

The prevalence among these numismatic relics of the well 
authenticated coin types of Philip II of Macedon and his son 
Alexander the Great, on many of which it has been sought to 
convert the chariot wheel of the Macedonian Stater into a Sun- 
wheel and assimilate the Rhodian rose and other self evident 
Greek coin types to Druidical symbolism, would seem to indi- 
cate that these people either flourished contemporaneously with 
the Macedonian conqueror or were (perhaps both) a race which 
fled before the advance of his arms from some more central hab- 
itat, perhaps the (Jalatia of Asia Minor which gave birth to the 
Apostle Paul. 

'See fltfiin- on |>;ilv»' :!<!. 


It is astonishing how near humanity lias come, again and 
again, to the real secret of the Swastika, without crossing the 

line which exists between conjecture and certainty. The Swas- 
tika is all that it has been deemed to he and something more. Its 
symbolic associations with solar motion have been too remark- 
able not to have placed it in the category of solar symbols, but 
it lias remained for us to indicate its true character and a fresh 
array of considerations which show it to be far more wonderful 
than anything so far surmised. 

Xo one can fail to recognize its numerical value as a calen- 
drical symbol suggestive of the revolution of periods of time in 
tin 1 blocking out on our system of numerical squares of a figure 
of four seasons, twelve months and fifty-two weeks. 

We have entered, in our observations concerning the ''For- 
ty-seventh problem of Euclid" and its far reaching- bearings 
upon the various geometrical formulae having to do with the 
Squaring of the Circle and also determined the reason- which led 
the ancients to divide the cube of "Four" (64) into a Solar 36 
and a Lunar 28. 









The Squared Circle of Equal Areas. 

The Circle laid directly on the Square 
to indicate the function of the Swastika 

Having ascertained the relative proportions of our Circle 
of equal area to our Square of "Sixty-four", blocking the latter 


out into a Swastika expressing a year of Fifty two weeks and 
supposing it to be endowed with rotary motion, we see thai ae it 
turns, the inner angles of the arms precisely trace the Circle 
that the Swastika becomes a most realistic image of the great 
Cabalistic secret, the Squaring of the Circle by the Heavenly 
bodies in their annual revolution. 

HIT "/ 

/ v ! ' M : \ H 7^ — 


seseLSssts sssaras s? 






Chinese Silver »•"•«• ^ " iV i. -";"/■-. 19-I6 proportions 
Showing double Swastikas and the 3-4 and li it> P™v 
by ingeniously grouped dots. 

The Asiatic form of Swastika, which is double jointed, 
proves to he so constructed that while the inner angle is inscrib- 
ing the ( lircle of equal area, one of the outer ones is tracing that 



of equal perimeter or within a small fraction of it. A very little 
reflection will show that while the fundamental idea of the Swas 
tika starts with the broken "Iki" square, that it may be seen 
in the "Male principle" "Nine" of the Euclid problem, where 
even at that low stage of development it serves to connect the 

The Squared Circle of Equal Perimetei 
< Approximate >. 

The same overlaying Square so as to show 
relation of Oriental Swastika to both Cir- 
cles and relative proportion of each to the 


Sun with the creative power. The space between the two cir- 
cles, much used by the devotees of Eastern religions and philo- 
sophical cults to express the realm of "Chaos" existent between 
Heaven and the Universe, became in the West the Zodiacal 
Circle, receiving the figures from the corresponding divisions of 
the earlier Zodiacal Square. This arrangement at once confers 
upon the Swastika the character of a symbol of the Four Seas- 
ons, a device which causes the second Zodiacal sign, Tau- 
rus to fall to a corner place. Xow we well know from the general 
position that this lower left hand corner must correspond with 
the early part of the year, so if we are to determine the arms of 
the Swastika, as the Equinoctial and Solstitial points, we will 
see that a still deeper significance is intended; nothing more nor 
less than that great cyclical revolution of the whole Universe, 
which, at intervals of thousands of years apart, carries the be- 
ginnings of the Equinoxes and Solstices, slowly from a position 
of the Sun in one sign of the Zodiac to one in another. Ufliver- 



sal chronology and the length of time wind, separates u- Prom 
the beginning of the world, was reckoned I, the ancients on 
assumption hat when God created the Universe, II,. started , I, 
great pendulum of Tune swinging, with the Sun in the -i.„, of 
Aries. Hence the great esoteric connection of Ram and Lamb 
with various religions. 

In the course of several milleniums, the Spring Equinoctial 
arm of the great cosmogomc Swastika had swung around to the 
sign of Taurus, the Bull, and this is the main evidence thai the 
great geometrical revelation took place at some time during the 
''Tauric" period, when Circle squaring, the Zodiac and the 
Swastika, all coincided as we see them in the following figure 

The Swastika and the Zodiacal Circle. 

The Hon. E. M. Plunkett (Ancient Calendars and Constella- 
tions) says with regard to this subject — "The beginning of the 
Medean year was fixed to the season of the Spring- Equinox, and 
remaining true to that season, followed no star mark. The great 
importance, however, of Tauric symbolism in Medean art, seems 
to point to the fact, that when the equinoctial vear wa> first 

Astronomy teaches us, that was the case, speaking in round 
numbers, from 2,000 to 4,000 B. C." 

The Swastika "of the double Circle' ' is even more precise 
in its Solar Lunar numeration than the simpler form, for laid 



out upon a square of 16x16 or 256, it divides that volume into 
four arms of 28 each, without counting the centre 4, which added 
to the spaces between the arms gives us four sections of 36 each. 

An ornamental form of the Chinese 
character Hsi, meaning- Eternal Life. 



Will be followed at an early date by the second monograph 

A.-. U,. M,. 



(Profusely Illustrated) 

A circumstantial demonstration of the fact that the Forty- 
Seventh Problem of Euclid is the secret shrine of a further 
Divine Mystery transcending the most vivid imaginations 
ever conjured concerning it. That it is in fact 




Full text and illustrations of the remarkable address delivered by 
Frank C. Higgins, President of the New York Numis- 
matic Club, before the 1910 Convention of 
the American Numismatic 


Not only a Numismatic document of the highest interest to those inter^ 
ested in "far eastern" coins but an archaelogical discovery 
which opened an entirely new field of research among the earliest 
monuments of civilization. 

The story of the preservation on Chinese "Temple Money" of the 
earliest religious symbols of the human race, how these symbols 
have affected all subsequent beliefs and found their way to 
America in prehistoric times. 



32 E. 23rd Street, 

New York City 


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